Wednesday, June 19, 2024

What Causes Hearing Loss In Newborn Babies

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Infant Hearing Loss

Technology, such as hearing aids and implants, allows most deaf children to hear sound close to typical hearing levels, however it cannot replace normal hearing.

I should have asked what she would be able to hear with the right technology a short while later I was relieved and delighted that even with severe hearing loss, her amazing hearing aids help her hear so much better than I ever dared hope for. I had no idea about the brilliant tech available and learning about this earlier could have saved many sleepless nights.

Shortly after diagnosis, you should be contacted by your childs Teacher of the Deaf. They, along with your childs audiology team, will be aiming to get a clear picture of your babys hearing loss and will talk to you about what you can do to support your childs speech and language development and communication.

Even with aids or implants, there will be times when your child has difficulty hearing clearly compared to hearing children, but other technology and adaptations are available to make listening as easy as possible for them. Your audiologist or Teacher of the Deaf can advise you.

Causes Of Hearing Loss In Children2

Hearing loss can be congenital or acquired . Approximately 50% of all incidents of congenital hearing loss is due to genetic factors.1 Congenital causes of hearing loss that are not hereditary in nature include

  • illnesses
  • use of ototoxic medications, drugs or alcohol
  • premature birth
  • other birth complications

Hearing loss can also occur after birth, due to a disease, a condition or an injury. If you are wondering what caused your childâs hearing loss, it is best to ask your childâs physician.

Risk Factors For Hearing Loss In Babies

Most hearing loss is present at birth , but some babies develop hearing loss after theyre born . The major risk factors for hearing loss in babies are:

  • Premature birth
  • Low birth weight
  • Long-term use of ventilators in babies with respiratory problems
  • Infections the mother passes to her baby in the womb
  • Infections that can damage the brain after birth, such as meningitis or measles

Because of these risks, many health organizations, including the National Institutes of Health , the Joint Committee on Infant Hearing, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the American Academy of Audiology now recommend universal infant hearing screening, which we perform here at Cooper.

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Why Would A Newborn Fail A Hearing Test

Babies can failnewborn hearing screeningtestbaby

. Similarly, can newborn hearing test be wrong?

Sometimes newborns with normal hearing get a wrong diagnosis after having an OAE test: Although they can hear well, they are mistakenly diagnosed as being hard of hearing. This is called a false positivetest result. Wrong diagnoses like this are usually quickly corrected when further tests are done.

One may also ask, how can I test my newborn’s hearing? The oto-acoustic emission test is the most common one . A specialist will put a small microphone in your baby’s ear, which sends a sound. The echo that comes back is sent to a portable computer. The computer can tell whether the baby heard the sound.

Keeping this in consideration, what happens if baby doesn’t pass hearing test?

If your baby does not pass the hearing screening at birth, it does not necessarily mean that she is deaf or hard of hearing. Fluid or vernix inside the baby’s ear, for example, or too much noise in the room can affect results. In fact, most babies who do not pass the newborn screening have typical hearing.

What are the signs of deafness in babies?

Signs of hearing loss in your baby can include:

  • Not being startled by loud sounds.
  • Not turning toward a sound after he’s 6 months old.
  • Not saying single words like mama or dada by the time he’s 1 year old.
  • Turns his head if he sees you, but not if you only call out his name.
  • Seems to hear some sounds but not others.

If An Infant Does Not Pass A Hearing Screen In The Hospital What Happens Next

7 years of newborn hearing screening data

Most hospital screening programs will refer infants who failed the initial screening test to a secondary center that specializes in more complete testing for diagnosis.

  • Sometimes, simple problems, such as too much residual amniotic fluid and vernix in the ear canal, will resolve prior to the rescreen and the infant will pass the second test.
  • The rescreen is an important step in determining whether the infant is able to hear, so it should not be taken lightly.
  • If an infant does not pass the rescreen, then a full diagnostic test will be necessary.
  • This test may be completed at the rescreen site or at another facility, depending on several factors.

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Hearing Preservation And Restoration

Emerging therapies for hearing loss can be broadly sub-classified as hearing preservation or hearing restoration strategies. , Hearing preservation would probably be easier to achieve than hearing restoration preservation strategies seek to promote hair cell survival and correct protein defects before complete and irreversible hair cell damage occurs. Once hair cells have died, hearing restoration strategies are required, with options depending on the condition of the remaining supporting cells.

Thanks to progress in genetic testing, it is possible to identify groups of patient with gene-specific mutations. Studies aimed at elucidating the broader effects of mutations at the gene level are needed to identify pathways interactions and crosstalk, which in turn are likely to provide novel insights into hearing preservation strategies.

Hearing Loss In Children

Hearing loss can affect a childs ability to develop speech, language, and social skills. The earlier children with hearing loss start getting services, the more likely they are to reach their full potential. If you think that a child might have hearing loss, ask the childs doctor for a hearing screening as soon as possible. Dont wait!

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What Causes Hearing Loss In Newborns

  • low birth weight.
  • Malformed structures in the middle or outer ear can also lead to hearing loss.
  • Viral illness during the pregnancy, such as rubella or cytomegalovirus , can be passed to the newborn and result in hearing loss.
  • Hearing loss can sometimes be inherited in abnormal genes passed from the parents to the newborn or be the result of a gene mutation that occurred during fetal development.
  • Genetic counseling is often recommended for parents to determine if heredity is the cause of the hearing loss.
  • In approximately half of all cases of hearing loss, the cause is never determined.
  • Hearing Loss Impairment & Problems In Newborn Babies Causes Hearing Test & Treatment

    Newborn Hearing Screening and Hearing Loss in Infants

    Causes of Hearing Loss in Babies

    • Birth defects that cause changes in the structure of the ear canal or middle ear
    • Buildup of ear wax
    • Buildup of fluid behind the eardrum
    • Injury or rupture of the eardrum
    • Objects stuck in the ear canal
    • Scar on the eardrum from infections
    • Exposure to certain toxic chemicals or medications while in the womb or after birth
    • Genetic disorders
    • Infections that pass on from mother to baby in the womb like measles, herpes)
    • Infections that can damage the brain after birth such as meningitis or measles
    • Problems with the structure of the inner ear
    • Tumors

    Types of Hearing Test for Newborn Babies

  • ABR Auditory Brain Stem Response hearing test uses patches called electrodes to see how the auditory nerve reacts to sound.
  • OAE Otoacoustic Emissions hearing test uses microphones placed near the ear to detect nearby sounds and check for echoes in the babys ear canal.
  • Hearing Loss Treatment for Newborn Babies

    • Cochlear implants
    • Medications for infections
    • Ear tubes for repeated ear infections
    • Ear Surgery to correct structural defects

    Prevention of Hearing Loss in Newborn Babies

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    Common Causes Of Hearing Loss

    When a child has conductive hearing loss, there are a number of causes. Hearing Loss Association of American lists: fluid, ear infections, allergies, poor Eustachian tube function, perforated eardrum, benign tumors, impacted ear wax, infection in the ear canal, foreign body in the ear, and otosclerosis.

    For infants diagnosed with sensorineural hearing loss there is a long list of possible causes. These causes include exposure to loud noises, head trauma, virus or disease, autoimmune inner ear disease, hearing loss that runs in the family, malformation of the inner ear, or Menieres disease.

    What Are Signs Of Hearing Loss

    Signs of hearing loss in your baby can include:

    • Not being startled by loud sounds
    • Not turning toward a sound after hes 6 months old
    • Not saying single words like mama or dada by the time hes 1 year old
    • Turns his head if he sees you, but not if you only call out his name
    • Seems to hear some sounds but not others

    If your baby shows signs of hearing loss at any time, call his health care provider to get your babys hearing checked.

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    Can We Know That The Newborn Is Going To Have Hearing Problems Beforehand

    The intelligent mothers at the very beginning after birth come to know that the baby is not paying attention to sound. Therefore, when you clap or make a sound near the baby, the baby is startled. This means that the baby does not have a hearing problem.

    There are special children, especially those whose delivery was complicated or those with complex pregnancies. The newborn babies get jaundice. Some of the newborn babies are kept in the ICU and are given antibiotics. Here all these conditions are in infants, i.e., babies who are only a few months old. These babies are at high risk of getting hearing problems. Not only this, but these babies are at increased risk of getting eye problems and mental retardation.

    What Causes Hearing Loss

    Hearing Loss: Causes Of Hearing Loss In Infants

    Were not sure what causes all forms of hearing loss. Possible causes include:

    Genes. Genes are parts of your bodys cells that store instructions for the way your body grows and works. Genes are passed from parents to children. Genes may play a role in about half of the cases of hearing loss in babies and children. If you or your partner has a family history of hearing loss, you may want to talk with a genetic counselor before getting pregnant. This is a person who is trained to help you understand about how genes, birth defects and other medical conditions run in families, and how they can affect your health and your babys health.

    Sometimes the instructions in genes change. This is called a gene change or a mutation. Gene changes can cause two kinds of hearing loss:

  • Syndromic. The hearing loss happens with other health problems, like blindness.
  • Non-syndromic. This is when hearing loss is the only condition a baby has. About 7 in 10 mutations causing hearing loss are non-syndromic.
  • Premature birth or low birthweight. Premature birth is birth that happens too early, before 37 weeks of pregnancy. Premature babies often have more health problems at birth and later in life than babies born full term. Low birthweight is when a baby is born weighing less than 5 pounds, 8 ounces. Learn more about things you can do to help reduce your risk for premature birth.

    Infections your baby has after birth. Infections that can cause hearing loss include:

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    Test Your Child’s Hearing

    As a parent, you are the person most likely to notice if your child has a hearing problem. The sooner you discover this, the sooner your child can be tested further and treated if necessary. Teachers may also notice hearing problems, so it is worth checking with your childs teacher whether they have any concerns.

    The checklists below, which are only a guide, can alert you to potential problems with your child’s hearing. If you are worried, print out the checklist, take it to your doctor or nurse and ask about getting your child’s hearing tested.

    At 46 weeks: When there is a sudden loud noise, does your baby …

    • jump or blink?
    • stop sucking for a moment?
    • look up from sucking?

    At 34 months: Does your baby

    • blink or cry when there is a sudden noise?
    • stop crying or sucking when you talk?
    • wake or stir to loud sounds?
    • coo or smile when you talk?
    • turn their eyes toward voices?
    • seem to like a musical toy?
    • stop moving when there is a new sound?
    • seem to know your voice?

    At 57 months: Does your baby …

    • turn toward a sound or someone speaking?
    • cry when there is a sudden noise?
    • like music?
    • make lots of different babbling sounds?
    • sometimes copy sounds you make?

    At 912 months: Does your baby …

    • respond to their own name?
    • look around to find new sounds, even quiet sounds?
    • understand ‘no’ and ‘bye-bye’?
    • use babbling that sounds like real speech?
    • try to talk back when you talk?

    At 1518 months: Does your child

    At 23 years: Does your child

    At 5 years: Does your child

    What Causes Hearing Loss In One Ear In Newborns

    causedHearing loss in one ear

    . Also know, can a baby be deaf in one ear?

    Even if your baby’s hearing screen is normal at birth, it is still possible for a young child to develop hearing loss in one ears later on. About 1 baby in every 500 births will have a hearing loss in one ear.

    Similarly, what are the signs of deafness in babies? Signs of hearing loss in your baby can include:

    • Not being startled by loud sounds.
    • Not turning toward a sound after he’s 6 months old.
    • Not saying single words like mama or dada by the time he’s 1 year old.
    • Turns his head if he sees you, but not if you only call out his name.
    • Seems to hear some sounds but not others.

    is it common for a newborn to fail hearing test?

    Between 2 and 10 percent of all babies across the United States do not pass their first hearing screen, but very few of these babies have permanent hearing loss. Babies can fail the newborn hearing screening due to vernix in the ear canal, fluid in the middle ear, or because of movement or crying during the test.

    Can an infant grow out of hearing loss?

    Routine screening of newborns for hearing loss, which is required in most states, has helped thousands of babies each year by getting them hearing aids and other treatments early, giving them a better chance of developing speech. Some children grow out of auditory neuropathy. For others it causes profound hearing loss.

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    What Causes Conductive Hearing Loss

    With conductive hearing loss, a problem in the outer or middle ear blocks the passage to the inner ear. Ear infections that cause fluid to build up in the ear are the most common cause of conductive hearing loss and can typically be treated with medication.

    Other causes include:

    • colds or allergies that cause fluid to build up in the ear
    • small objects that become stuck in the ear
    • excessive ear wax in the ear canal
    • non-cancerous tumors that block the ear canal
    • congenital deformities of the outer or middle ear

    How Can You Prevent Hearing Loss In Your Baby

    ENT Deaf Child Define Causes Hearing loss baby Fetus Maternal Infant Reason What wrong congenital

    Some types of hearing loss, like hearing loss caused by gene changes, cant be prevented. But you can help prevent hearing loss related to other causes, like infections and premature birth. Heres what you can do:

    Before pregnancy

    • Get a preconception checkup. This is a medical checkup you get before pregnancy to help make sure youre healthy when you get pregnant.
    • Make sure your vaccinations are up-to-date. Talk to your provider about vaccinations you need before you get pregnant. For example, you may need the MMR vaccination that protects you from measles and rubella.
    • Get checked for infections, like STIs. Early testing and treatment can help you have a healthy pregnancy and a healthy baby.

    During pregnancy

    Go to all of your prenatal care checkups. Prenatal care is medical care during pregnancy. At each prenatal care visit, your health care provider checks on you and your growing baby. Getting early and regular prenatal care can help you have a healthy pregnancy. Go to all your checkups, even if youre feeling fine.

    Protect yourself from infections. Heres what you can do:

    After birth

    Take your baby to all his well-baby checkups. At these checkups, your babys provider checks your babys overall health, growth and development. Your baby also gets vaccinations to help protect her from harmful infections.

    Get early treatment for ear infections. If you think your baby has an ear infection, call his provider right away. Signs and symptoms of ear infection include:

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    When Should I Contact A Pediatrician

    If your baby shows any of the signs listed below, we recommend scheduling a hearing consultation with your pediatrician.

    • Showing no reaction to loud noises
    • Not speaking words at the age expected
    • Failing to make any mimicking sounds

    If your baby has a cochlear implant, we recommend contacting your pediatrician immediately if your child develops:

    • Ear infection

    Oaes And Abrs Is One Test Better Than The Other

    Both tests have advantages and disadvantages when used for screening, and depending on the program and experience of the audiologist, either one can be utilized successfully.

    • The OAE is easy and cost-effective. However, the false-positive rate may be higher for an OAE than for an ABR.
    • The false-positive rate for ABR testing is approximately 4% when testing is done during the first three days of life.
    • The false positive rate for OAE testing is 5%-21% for testing done during the first three days of life.
    • This large variation between ABR and OAE testing is commonly felt to reflect the OAE testing device’s increased sensitivity to residual amniotic fluid and vernix that is commonly found in the neonate’s ear canal.

    The two tests, however, rely on different mechanisms of hearing for the screening. For in-depth testing and a complete hearing evaluation of infants, these tests work best together as a complement to each other.

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