How Did Sign Language Originate
Have you ever seen people deep in conversation with each other without a single sound coming from their lips? Their hands and fingers move animatedly as they silently speak sentences that sometimes you can also guess at. These people are actually conversing using sign language because they are hearing or speech impaired.
Across the world, people have developed sign language to communicate with each other and with the rest of the world. Signs and gestures have always been in use. Medieval monks who have taken vows of silence, Native Americans, African bushmen and others are fluent in the art of gestures and sign language communication. These could be signs such as asking for food or water. In England, the medieval monk Venerable Bede devised a number code based on manual signs.
Indian classical dancers also make use of a rich vocabulary of gestures called mudras. Most mudras describe actions, such as eating, while others represent emotions, animals, even gods and goddesses. For example, by joining the thumb, the middle finger and ring finger, while the other two are fully extended, the dancer represent a deer.
Sign language, as we know it today, originated in the 16th century when an Italian physician called Geronimo Cardano, decided to teach deaf people by writing a combination of symbols and associating them with the thing they represented.
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When Was Sign Language Invented
It is very difficult to find out more about the origin and history of sign language due to the limited written documents that are available on the subject. Very little is known of the subject, which is why it can be hard to find out more about when sign language was created and who invented it.
There are a few documents from history that would suggest a rough time period in which sign language was invented, so there is some information to be explored. If you have been searching the internet to find out when sign language was invented, you might have noticed that there are varying answers to the questions.
The good news is that we have done all the research so you dont have to, and we have compiled it all in one place to make it easier for you to find the answers to the questions that you have. Just keep reading to find out when sign language was first invented.
Mexican Sign Language Interpreters Navigate Disability Discrimination
People with hearing disabilities in Mexico suffer on two levels when it comes to access to an interpreter, one of their key rights.
One the hand, there is a shortage of certified and qualified interpreters and, on the other, the labour rights of these interpreters are not respected, further contributing to the discrimination faced by the deaf and hard of hearing.
The are not seen as a linguistic minority. There is also a lack of training , there is no formal qualification. Its difficult for us to be seen as professionals, says Erika Ordóñez, president of the Federal District Sign Language Interpreters Association .
There are approximately 649,000 people with hearing disabilities in Mexico, a country of 122 million people. Of that number, between 300,000 and 500,000 people communicate through Mexican sign language . Yet, there are only 42 certified LSM interpreters, plus another 200 with some degree of training, and around 150 informal interpreters. As a result, hundreds of thousands of Mexicans enduring varying levels of exclusion from essential services such as education, health care and the justice system.
In 2008, the National Council for the Standardisation and Certification of Occupational Skills , established the NUIPD001.01 Standard on the Provision of Mexican Sign Language Interpreting Services, stipulating all the criteria a qualified interpreter should meet.
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American Sign Language Today
Today ASL is the fourth most spoken language in the U.S. The ASL system is the most comprehensive, complete, and expressive systems of signed language in the world today. The ASL system has allowed the gap of communication between the deaf community and the rest of the world to be bridged. Interest in sign language continues to grow with more and more people wanting to learn this unique form of communication. Many colleges, universities, churches and community centers across the United States offer sign language classes to better accommodate the ever-growing demand for the knowledge of sign language. American Sign Language has even been considered a foreign language due to the fact that is a visual and gestural language rather than an aural and oral language .
The Earliest Sign Languages
No one knows exactly when sign language first appeared, but many sources agree that using hands to communicate has been around just as long as spoken language. And these early signing systems were the direct result of humans needing a new way to interact. Researchers believe that hunters on the open plains used signs to communicate to each other from great distances. Because of the lack of visual obstruction in a plains environment, sign was the most obvious way to communicate without scaring off the animals they were hunting.
The ancient Great Plains Native Americans also developed a complex signing system. Its unclear what exactly the system was for, but many different theories exist. A popular one is that sign made intertribal trade possible. To overcome language barriers, the natives developed a standardized system of hand gestures to negotiate with tribes that didnt speak their languageincluding European expeditioners. Multiple accounts of Columbus landing in the Americas claim that the natives communicated with his crew through sign.
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Puerto Rican Sign Language
|Puerto Rican Sign Language|
Thai Sign Language or Modern Standard Thai Sign Language , is the national sign language of Thailand‘s Deaf community and is used in most parts of the country by the 20% of the estimated 56,000 pre-linguistically deaf people who go to school. Thai Sign Language was acknowledged as “the national language of deaf people in Thailand” in August 1999, in a resolution signed by the Minister of Education on behalf of the Royal Thai Government. As with many sign languages, the means of transmission to children occurs within families with signing deaf parents and in schools for the deaf. A robust process of language teaching and enculturation among deaf children has been documented and photographed in the Thai residential schools for the deaf.
Thai Sign Language is related to American Sign Language, and belongs to the same language family as ASL. This relatedness is due to language contact and creolisation that has occurred between ASL, which was introduced into deaf schools in Thailand in the 1950s by American-trained Thai educators and at least two indigenous sign languages that were in use at the time: Old Bangkok Sign Language and Old Chiangmai Sign Language.
How Does American Sign Language Compare With Spoken Language
In spoken language, the different sounds created by words and tones of voice are the most important devices used to communicate. Sign language is based on the idea that sight is the most useful tool a deaf person has to communicate and receive information. Thus, ASL uses hand shape, position, and movement body movements gestures facial expressions and other visual cues to form its words. Like any other language, fluency in ASL happens only after a long period of study and practice.
Even though ASL is used in America, it is a language completely separate from English. It contains all the fundamental features a language needs to function on its own–it has its own rules for grammar, punctuation, and sentence order. ASL evolves as its users do, and it also allows for regional usage and jargon. Every language expresses its features differently ASL is no exception. Whereas English speakers often signal a question by using a particular tone of voice, ASL users do so by raising the eyebrows and widening the eyes. Sometimes, ASL users may ask a question by tilting their bodies forward while signaling with their eyes and eyebrows.
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Basics Of Alphabets And Fingerspelling
Most people start their sign language journey by learning the A-Z or alphabet equivalent in sign form.
The use of the hands to represent individual letters of a written alphabet is called fingerspelling. Its an important tool that helps signers manually spell out names of people, places and things that dont have an established sign.
For example, most sign languages have a specific sign for the word tree, but may not have a specific sign for oak, so o-a-k would be finger spelled to convey that specific meaning.
Of course, not every language uses the Latin alphabet like English, so their sign language alphabet differs as well. Some manual alphabets are one-handed, such as in ASL and French Sign Language, and others use two-hands, like BSL or Auslan. Though there are similarities between some of the different manual alphabets, each sign language has its own style and modifications, and remains unique.
Spatial Grammar And Simultaneity
Sign languages exploit the unique features of the visual medium , but may also exploit tactile features . Spoken language is by and large linear only one sound can be made or received at a time. Sign language, on the other hand, is visual and, hence, can use a simultaneous expression, although this is limited articulatorily and linguistically. Visual perception allows processing of simultaneous information.
One way in which many sign languages take advantage of the spatial nature of the language is through the use of classifiers. Classifiers allow a signer to spatially show a referent’s type, size, shape, movement, or extent.
The large focus on the possibility of simultaneity in sign languages in contrast to spoken languages is sometimes exaggerated, though. The use of two manual articulators is subject to motor constraints, resulting in a large extent of symmetry or signing with one articulator only. Further, sign languages, just like spoken languages, depend on linear sequencing of signs to form sentences the greater use of simultaneity is mostly seen in the morphology .
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Use Of Sign Languages In Hearing Communities
On occasion, where the prevalence of deaf people is high enough, a deaf sign language has been taken up by an entire local community, forming what is sometimes called a “village sign language” or “shared signing community”. Typically this happens in small, tightly integrated communities with a closed gene pool. Famous examples include:
In such communities deaf people are generally well-integrated in the general community and not socially disadvantaged, so much so that it is difficult to speak of a separate “Deaf” community.
Many Australian Aboriginal sign languages arose in a context of extensive speech taboos, such as during mourning and initiation rites. They are or were especially highly developed among the Warlpiri, Warumungu, Dieri, Kaytetye, Arrernte, and Warlmanpa, and are based on their respective spoken languages.
Sign language is also used by some people as a form of alternative or augmentative communication by people who can hear but cannot use their voices to speak.
Some sign languages have obtained some form of legal recognition, while others have no status at all. Sarah Batterbury has argued that sign languages should be recognized and supported not merely as an accommodation for the disabled, but as the communication medium of language communities.
Relationships With Spoken Languages
There is a common misconception that sign languages are somehow dependent on spoken languages: that they are spoken language expressed in signs, or that they were invented by hearing people. Similarities in language processing in the brain between signed and spoken languages further perpetuated this misconception. Hearing teachers in deaf schools, such as or Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet, are often incorrectly referred to as “inventors” of sign language. Instead, sign languages, like all natural languages, are developed by the people who use them, in this case, deaf people, who may have little or no knowledge of any spoken language.
As a sign language develops, it sometimes borrows elements from spoken languages, just as all languages borrow from other languages that they are in contact with. Sign languages vary in how much they borrow from spoken languages. In many sign languages, a manual alphabet may be used in signed communication to borrow a word from a spoken language, by spelling out the letters. This is most commonly used for proper names of people and places it is also used in some languages for concepts for which no sign is available at that moment, particularly if the people involved are to some extent bilingual in the spoken language. Fingerspelling can sometimes be a source of new signs, such as initialized signs, in which the handshape represents the first letter of a spoken word with the same meaning.
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What Does Recent Research Say About American Sign Language And Other Sign Languages
Some studies focus on the age of ASL acquisition. Age is a critical issue for people who acquire ASL, whether it is a first or second language. For a person to become fully competent in any language, exposure must begin as early as possible, preferably before school age. Other studies compare the skills of native signers and non-native signers to determine differences in language processing ability. Native signers of ASL consistently display more accomplished sign language ability than non-native signers, again emphasizing the importance of early exposure and acquisition.
Other studies focus on different ASL processing skills. Users of ASL have shown ability to process visual mental images differently than hearing users of English. Though English speakers possess the skills needed to process visual imagery, ASL users demonstrate faster processing ability–suggesting that sign language enhances certain processing functions of the human brain.
How Sign Language Works
For centuries, people who were hard of hearing or deaf have relied on communicating with others through visual cues. As deaf communities grew, people began to standardize signs, building a rich vocabulary and grammar that exists independently of any other language. A casual observer of a conversation conducted in sign language might describe it as graceful, dramatic, frantic, comic or angry without knowing what a single sign meant.
There are hundreds of sign languages. Wherever there are communities of deaf people, you’ll find them communicating with a unique vocabulary and grammar. Even within a single country, you can encounter regional variations and dialects — like any spoken language, you’re bound to find people in different regions who communicate the same concept in different ways.
It may seem strange to those who don’t speak sign language, but countries that share a common spoken language do not necessarily share a common sign language. AmericanSign Language and British Sign Language evolved independently of one another, so it would be very difficult, or even impossible, for an American deaf person to communicate with an English deaf person. However, many of the signs in ASL were adapted from French Sign Language . So a speaker of ASL in France could potentially communicate clearly with deaf people there, even though the spoken languages are completely different.
Learning to sign in the Sign Language Interpretation Lab at Georgia Perimeter College
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The Rise Of The Oralists
Despite the momentum sign was gaining in America, there were still many that didnt view this widespread acceptance of sign language teaching as a positive development. Like the oralists in Europe, many American leaders and teachers falsely thought that sign was holding back deaf students. They believed it only hampered their development and encouraged deaf people to be isolated from the rest of hearing society. For the oralists, the only way to truly teach deaf pupils was to require them to speak English and abandon sign altogether.
Alexander Graham Bell was the face of the oralism movement.
By 1867, major schools in America began using oral methods of teaching with no sign language at all. Misguided advocates like Alexander Graham Bellthe same Bell who invented the telephonewere convinced that oral education was the best and only way for deaf children to learn. More and more schools started teaching deaf students orally or trying out combination methods that still used sign language but mainly focused on lip-reading and learning speech.
Who Invented Sign Language First
Although no formal American Sign Language came about until the early 1800s, prehistoric humans likely utilized some kind of signs to explain concepts they couldnt talk about. Rather than say, The mammoth walked across the plain, early humans might have mimicked what a mammoths motions were like when walking on flat ground.
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How Do Most Children Learn Asl
Parents are often the source of a childs early acquisition of language, but for children who are deaf, additional people may be models for language acquisition. A deaf child born to parents who are deaf and who already use ASL will begin to acquire ASL as naturally as a hearing child picks up spoken language from hearing parents. However, for a deaf child with hearing parents who have no prior experience with ASL, language may be acquired differently. In fact, 9 out of 10 children who are born deaf are born to parents who hear. Some hearing parents choose to introduce sign language to their deaf children. Hearing parents who choose to have their child learn sign language often learn it along with their child. Children who are deaf and have hearing parents often learn sign language through deaf peers and become fluent.